Wave Rebuttal Page

This is a good place to find environmental friendliness,cost, and availabilityGroup Members
http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/wave.htm <--- good site!
http://www.energyboom.com/10-facts-about-ocean-wave-power --------- facts about wave power
Student Name
Wikispaces Username
Responsible for Researching This:
Olivia Wildhagen-Piercy
wildpiercy
Viability
Melissa Jiang
triplezero
Environment Impact + Systems of Wave Energy
Harrison M.
HarrisonM.

*Kyle W
KyleW3000
How much is Wave Energy used?
Ryan Bidding
RyanB1138

Carol Hall


Paityn Howat
PaitynH
How is energy produced from waves?
Mariaelena N.
MariaN160
Advantages of Wave energy
Van Hopkins
VanH4
amount of energy produced from waves
David Kunz
mynameisnotjakeandisdavid
Dangers of using wave energy
*Aaliyah Ashburn
AaliyahA
Disadvantages of wave energy
Jadielyn Axtell
JadielynA

wave energy is most common in 3 different types a turbine where the water pushes against the blades of a fan to make it spin like when you blow on a pin wheel the long snake type where it is in sections and as they bend it pushes fluid back and forth across a turbine and the bladed type where a flat object moves back and forth pushing on a silendar pushing water back and forth across a turbine. the energy they produce only costs about 4.5 cents per kilowatt per hour. the energy is free once it is made it continues to make energy and they need relatively low maintenance they do not need to be maned like a traditional coal burning power plant. it creates no pollution what so ever is it ever needs to be repaired or fixed for some reason the whole unit can be taken apart and removed or replaced.they can produce 40-70 kwh per meter of coastline and its more than a 1000 miles long thats 64,343,300 to 112,654,080 thats enough to power 85,842,879 average american homes

It has been estimated that improving technology and economies of scale will allow wave generators to produce electricity at a cost comparable to wind-driven turbines, which produce energy at about 4.5 cents kWh.For now, the best wave generator technology in place in the United Kingdom is producing energy at an average projected/assessed cost of 7.5 cents kWh.In comparison, electricity generated by large scale coal burning power plants costs about 2.6 cents per kilowatt-hour. Combined-cycle natural gas turbine technology, the primary source of new electric power capacity is about 3 cents per kilowatt hour or higher. It is not unusual to average costs of 5 cents per kilowatt-hour and up for municipal utilities districts.here is the site http://www.oceanenergycouncil.com/index.php/Wave-Energy/Wave-Energy.html
http://www.energyboom.com/10-facts-about-ocean-wave-power
wave energy is concentrated wind energy because it is created when wind blows across the water
Wave power systems can be placed in deep water (more than 130 feet). Examples of this technological feat include using the bobbing motion of waves to power a pump that creates electricity – like the Salter Duck device does – or using hoses connected to floats that ride the waves stretching and relaxing the hose to create pressure that can rotate a turbine.
Wave power can be portable, employing floating platforms that create electricity by funneling waves through internal turbines and releasing the water back into the sea.


here arte some different types of wave energy
http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/guide/wave/index.cfms
Reference Materials:

The process of capturing power
Moving up and down while attached to the buoy is a generator that makes electricity from the movement: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_power
More precisely the wave forces air tthrough a chamber in the bouy moving the generator:
http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/wave.htm
external image wave.jpg
thanks to the site above.

Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work

Potential

The realistically usable worldwide resource has been estimated to be greater than 2 TW.
Locations with the most potential for wave power include the western seaboard of Europe,
the northern coast of the UK, and the Pacific coastlines of North and South America, Southern Africa,
Australia, and New Zealand. The north and south temperate zones have the best sites for capturing wave power.
The prevailing westerlies in these zones blow strongest in winter.
Waves are very predictable; waves that are caused by winds can be predicted five days in advance.

Challenges

There is a potential impact on the marine environment. Noise pollution, for example, could have negative impact if not monitored,
although the noise and visible impact of each design varies greatly . Other biophysical impacts (flora and fauna, sediment regimes
and water column structure and flows) of scaling up the technology is being studied. In terms of socio-economic challenges, wave
farms can result in the displacement of commercial and recreational fishermen from productive fishing grounds, can change the
pattern of beach sand nourishment, and may represent hazards to safe navigation. Waves generate about 2,700 gigawatts of power.
Of those 2,700 gigawatts, only about 500 gigawatts can be captured with the current technology.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_power

Overall

This type is slightly impractical to use because they have to be on a coast but have an unlimited power source so they are completely renewable.
It would probably provide energy to coastal cities.
http://www2.vims.edu/bridge/DATA.cfm?Bridge_Location=archive1005.html
Advantages
  • The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced.
  • Not expensive to operate and maintain.
  • Can produce a great deal of energy.
  • Renewable energy source.

*

Disadvantages

  • Improperly placed wave power plants can damage the marine ecosystem.
  • Efficiency drops significantly in rough weather due to safety mechanisms.
  • Limited locations where waves are strong enough to produce electricity without damaging equipment.
  • Power only produced near oceans making transmission to inland customers difficult.
  • Winds (and thus waves) can be unpredictable and far from reliable. Can’t produce electricity at all times.
http://renewableenergyindex.com/hydro/advantages-disadvantages-wave-power this has a list of disadvantages on it

Another thing to consider is that many sites are not suitable for wave energy plants. Locations that have strong waves on a regular basis are the best candidates for a plant, but those types of areas are limited in numb
http://www.exploregreenenergy.com/wave/advantages-and-disadvantages.php this website show the advantages and
disadvantages

Wave power generators require a consistent flow of powerful waves in order to create a consistent energy output, according to the United States Minerals Management Service. Waves, created by the wind skimming over the ocean's surface, are fairly consistent in parts of the world, including the west coasts of the United States and Europe, the coast of Japan, and the coast of New Zealand. Those areas still experience unreliable wave behavior, though. Because waves are erratic, the amount of energy a wave generator can produce is unpredictable and, therefore, cannot be used as a sole reliable energy source http://www.ehow.com/list_5974605_disadvantages-wave-energy.html this has the reason why not to use wave energy

The disadvantages of wave power are that there is the cost of building the generators, still quite a bit of research to do and that the energy source can be unpredictable, as no wave is the same
http://www.i-fink.com/articles/articles/wave_power/ this has both advantages and is dis advantages

1. Depends on the waves. Thus sometimes you'll get loads of energy, sometimes almost nothing.
2. Needs a suitable site to utilize wave energy, where waves are consistently strong.
3. Some designs are noisy. In fact then again, so are waves, so any noise is unlikely to be a problem.
4. Must be able to withstand very rough weather
http://www.inverter-china.com/blog/articles/green-energy/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-wave-power.html this has both advantages and disadvantages.

wave_energy.jpg How wave energy is produced and what the machine looks like.wave_energy_2.jpg

There are several methods of getting energy from waves.

One of them works like a swimming pool wave machine in reverse.

At a swimming pool, air is blown in and out of a chamber beside the pool, which makes the water outside bob up and down, causing waves.

At a wave power station, the waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall, which means that air is forced in and out of the hole in the top of the chamber.
We place a turbine in this hole, which is turned by the air rushing in and out.
The turbine turns a generator.
A problem with this design is that the rushing air can be very noisy, unless a silencer is fitted to the turbine.
The noise is not a huge problem anyway, as the waves make quite a bit of noise themselves.

external image wave.jpg
A company called Wavegen operate a commercial wave power station called "Limpet" on the Scottish island of Islay.
external image Limpet2.jpg


http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/wave.htm#how
||

Here are ten facts about ocean wave power that you may not have heard:
1. Wave energy is essentially stored, concentrated wind energy, since waves are created by the energy from wind as it blows over the surface of the water.
2. Once a wave power station is constructed, the energy is free, requires no fuel inputs and produces no waste or pollution.
3. Wave power onshore wave power systems extract the energy in breaking waves
4. Wave power systems can be placed in deep water (more than 130 feet). Examples of this technological feat include using the bobbing motion of waves to power a pump that creates electricity – like the Salter Duck device does – or using hoses connected to floats that ride the waves stretching and relaxing the hose to create pressure that can rotate a turbine.
5. Wave power can be portable, employing floating platforms that create electricity by funneling waves through internal turbines and releasing the water back into the sea.
6. Wave power can also be deployed close to the shoreline, capturing the energy from breaking waves to power hydraulic pumps or turbines.
7. Some areas of the world have better wave power potential than others. A few of the best areas include the western coasts of Scotland, northern Canada, southern Africa, Australia, and the northeastern and northwestern coasts of the United States. In the Pacific Northwest alone, wave energy could potentially produce 40–70 kilowatts (kW) per meter (3.3 feet) of western coastline, and the west coast of the U.S. is more than a 1,000 miles long.
8. Wave power is relatively predictable compared to sun and wind, which could provide utilities a dependable source for baseload power that is clean and non-polluting.
9. Sea water is more than 850 times denser than air at sea level, meaning that wave power installations can produce a lot of power with only a amount of equipment and real estate.
10. Worldwide, venture capital investments in ocean power companies has risen from $8 million in 2005 to $82 million in 2008, according to the Cleantech Group.
from http://www.energyboom.com/10-facts-about-ocean-wave-power




Systems of wave energy: There are two types
http://www.energysavers.gov/renewable_energy/ocean/index.cfm/mytopic=50009
Off shore systems
Offshore systems are situated in deep water, in about 40 meters (131 feet). Mechanisms—like the Salter Duck—use the bobbing motion of the waves to power a pump that creates electricity. Other offshore devices use hoses connected to floats that ride the waves. The rise and fall of the float stretches and relaxes the hose, which pressurizes the water, which, in turn, rotates a turbine.
Specially built sea vessels can also obtain the energy of offshore waves. The floating platforms create electricity by funneling waves through internal turbines and then back into the sea.
Onshore systems:
On the shore, the onshore systems extract the energy in breaking waves. Onshore has many technologies. Like an Oscillating Water Column, Tapchan, and a Pendulour Device.
Oscillating Water Column:
The oscillating water column is made up of a half submerged concrete or steel structure that has an opening to the sea below the waterline. It closes a column of air above a column of water. As waves enter the air column, they cause the water column to rise and fall. This alternately compresses and depressurizes the air column. As the wave retreats, the air is drawn back through the turbine as a result of the reduced air pressure on the ocean side of the turbine.

Pendulour Device:
The pendulor wave-power device consists of a rectangular box, which is open to the sea at one end. A flap is hinged over the opening and the motion of the waves then causes the flap to swing back and forth. The motion powers a generator and a hydraulic pumper.

Tapchan: Also known as a tapered channel, it makes up a tapered channel, which feeds into a reservoir constructed on cliffs above sea level. The narrowing of the channel causes the waves to increase in height as they move toward the cliff front. The waves then spill over the walls of the channel into the reservoir and the stored water is then fed through a turbine.



pelamis.jpg

from-
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=wave+energy+generator&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&client=safari&sa=N&rls=en&biw=1024&bih=612&tbm=isch&tbnid=bLmWVPl7697pSM:&=http:www.dailyplanetmedia.com/more_stories.php%3Fid%3D3598%26mode%3D3&docid=-I5ZKRk8UzTqrM&imgurl=http://www.dailyplanetmedia.com/spaw-editor/uploads/images/Pelamis%252520Wave%252520Energy%252520Generator.JPG&w=320&h=240&ei=KaIhT_SYOYSUtwe4-MGjCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=611&vpy=79&dur=81&hovh=192&hovw=256&tx=169&ty=86&sig=110321951643997911959&page=1&tbnh=114&tbnw=152&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0


6a00e54ee69b7d883400e5512d5d948833-800wi.jpg
http://www.bravenewleaf.com/environment/2008/03/wave-power-gain.html

images-1.jpeg
from-
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=wave+energy+generator&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=1024&bih=612&tbm=isch&tbnid=k8RGReHGqeScoM:&imgrefurl=http:inhabitat.com/aquamarine-power-unveils-oyster-800-wave-energy-generator-exclusive-photos/&docid=dMWoCnT2ftLX6M&imgurl=http://www.inhabitat.com/wp-content/uploads/oysterpower3.jpg&w=537&h=404&ei=iaIhT9OFNcPZtwfCq62iCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=90&vpy=145&dur=799&hovh=195&hovw=259&tx=175&ty=83&sig=110321951643997911959&page=1&tbnh=126&tbnw=159&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0

approximately 900 kWh per month of electricity is used by the average american household
from-
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ind_assumptions.html

Fossil fuels are deemed risky and could start pollution so Wave Energy is a good alternative resource.


This is a video showing a Wave Energy Devic
file://localhost/Users/carolhall/Desktop/science.jpg
  • ** Environmental impact, costs of wave power and where are the best places for wave energy-
    1. Where are the best waves?
  • Generally, extreme latitudes and west coasts of continents. View global wave atlas (based on satellite data) and another world wave map
  • The world's first commercial wave energy plant, .5 MW, developed by WaveGen is located in Isle of Islay, Scotland.
  • Here is wave data from the National Data Buoy Center or the Army, or the Scripps West Coast wave data system. You can also try http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/General/wave.html or http://www.globalwavestatisticsonline.com/ for a fee. It has been estimated that the total available US wave energy resource is 23 GW- more than twice as much as Japan, and nearly five times as much as Great Britain.




  • What is the impact on the environment?

    • Unlike dams, wave power structures that are equally long-lived promise comparatively benign environmental effects. Wave power is renewable, green, pollution-free, and environmentally invisible, if not beneficial, particularly offshore. Its net potential (resource minus "costs") is equal to or better than wind, solar, small hydro or biomass power.









    • If talking about how wave power machine affects the creatures and the area around it; it is simply possible that the components and installation of the machines will cause ever so slight disturbances in the sea beds. Fish are known to gather around rock reefs and man-made structures. The fish will most likely go to the structures built and be protected by fishing. The fish population will grow. It is thought that there will be no adverse affects on the fish from the machines to obtain wave energy. The bird behavior might have a negative impact though, since they will obviously try getting to the fish and the machines are in the way. But that's it. Marine mammals will be in need of weaving around the machines. They will not get trapped in the cables or anything, it is very unlikely. For all these creatures, there may be changes in their migration patterns and paths. These are simply predictions at times though.http://www.pelamiswave.com/project-development/environmental-impact



    • What are the anticipated wave energy cost?


  • It has been estimated that improving technology and economies of scale will allow wave generators to produce electricity at a cost comparable to wind-driven turbines, which produce energy at about 4.5 cents kWh.
  • For now, the best wave generator technology in place in the United Kingdom is producing energy at an average projected/assessed cost of 7.5 cents kWh.
  • In comparison, electricity generated by large scale coal burning power plants costs about 2.6 cents per kilowatt-hour. Combined-cycle natural gas turbine technology, the primary source of new electric power capacity is about 3 cents per kilowatt hour or higher. It is not unusual to average costs of 5 cents per kilowatt-hour and up for municipal utilities districts.
from-http://www.oceanenergycouncil.com/index.php/Wave-Energy/Wave-Energy.html
In order for wave power to compete with oil and be a viable energy source it needs to be an remain cheaper than oil and the other types of energy.




But no one knows exactly how the technologies will behave in the water, whether animals will get hurt, or if costs will pencil out.
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2008399727_oceanenergy17m.html
http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/intelligent-energy/animal-magnetism-how-wave-tidal-energy-devices-affect-sea-life/2796

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=70K0uQmb-bs